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Gibt es ein asynchrones Äquivalent von Process.Start?

Gibt es, wie der Titel besagt, ein Äquivalent zu Process.Start (ermöglicht das Ausführen einer anderen Anwendung oder Batchdatei), auf das ich warten kann?

Ich spiele mit einer kleinen Konsolen-App und dies schien der perfekte Ort zu sein, um async zu verwenden und abzuwarten, aber ich kann keine Dokumentation für dieses Szenario finden.

Was ich denke, ist etwas in diese Richtung:

void async RunCommand()
{
    var result = await Process.RunAsync("command to run");
}
110
linkerro

Process.Start() startet den Prozess nur, er wartet nicht bis er beendet ist, daher macht es wenig Sinn, ihn async zu machen. Wenn Sie es dennoch tun möchten, können Sie etwas wie await Task.Run(() => Process.Start(fileName)) tun.

Wenn Sie jedoch asynchron warten möchten, bis der Prozess abgeschlossen ist, können Sie das Exited-Ereignis zusammen mit TaskCompletionSource verwenden:

static Task<int> RunProcessAsync(string fileName)
{
    var tcs = new TaskCompletionSource<int>();

    var process = new Process
    {
        StartInfo = { FileName = fileName },
        EnableRaisingEvents = true
    };

    process.Exited += (sender, args) =>
    {
        tcs.SetResult(process.ExitCode);
        process.Dispose();
    };

    process.Start();

    return tcs.Task;
}
148
svick

Hier ist mein Take, basierend auf svicks Antwort . Es fügt eine Ausgabeumleitung, eine Beibehaltung des Exit-Codes und eine etwas bessere Fehlerbehandlung hinzu (das Process-Objekt wird auch dann gelöscht, wenn es nicht gestartet werden konnte)

public static async Task<int> RunProcessAsync(string fileName, string args)
{
    using (var process = new Process
    {
        StartInfo =
        {
            FileName = fileName, Arguments = args,
            UseShellExecute = false, CreateNoWindow = true,
            RedirectStandardOutput = true, RedirectStandardError = true
        },
        EnableRaisingEvents = true
    })
    {
        return await RunProcessAsync(process).ConfigureAwait(false);
    }
}    
private static Task<int> RunProcessAsync(Process process)
{
    var tcs = new TaskCompletionSource<int>();

    process.Exited += (s, ea) => tcs.SetResult(process.ExitCode);
    process.OutputDataReceived += (s, ea) => Console.WriteLine(ea.Data);
    process.ErrorDataReceived += (s, ea) => Console.WriteLine("ERR: " + ea.Data);

    bool started = process.Start();
    if (!started)
    {
        //you may allow for the process to be re-used (started = false) 
        //but I'm not sure about the guarantees of the Exited event in such a case
        throw new InvalidOperationException("Could not start process: " + process);
    }

    process.BeginOutputReadLine();
    process.BeginErrorReadLine();

    return tcs.Task;
}
46
Ohad Schneider

Hier ist ein anderer Ansatz. Ähnliches Konzept wie svick und Ohad answers, jedoch unter Verwendung einer Erweiterungsmethode für den Typ Process.

Erweiterungsmethode:

public static Task RunAsync(this Process process)
{
    var tcs = new TaskCompletionSource<object>();
    process.EnableRaisingEvents = true;
    process.Exited += (s, e) => tcs.TrySetResult(null);
    // not sure on best way to handle false being returned
    if (!process.Start()) tcs.SetException(new Exception("Failed to start process."));
    return tcs.Task;
}

Beispielanwendungsfall in einer enthaltenden Methode:

public async Task ExecuteAsync(string executablePath)
{
    using (var process = new Process())
    {
        // configure process
        process.StartInfo.FileName = executablePath;
        process.StartInfo.UseShellExecute = false;
        process.StartInfo.CreateNoWindow = true;
        // run process asynchronously
        await process.RunAsync();
        // do stuff with results
        Console.WriteLine($"Process finished running at {process.ExitTime} with exit code {process.ExitCode}");
    };// dispose process
}
5
Brandon

Ich habe eine Klasse aufgebaut, um einen Prozess zu starten, und sie ist in den letzten Jahren aufgrund verschiedener Anforderungen gewachsen. Während des Gebrauchs habe ich einige Probleme mit der Process-Klasse beim Entsorgen und sogar Lesen des ExitCodes festgestellt. Es wird von der Klasse behandelt und als Codekommentar erwähnt.

Die Klasse hat mehrere Möglichkeiten, zum Beispiel Ausgabe zu lesen, als Admin oder anderer Benutzer zu starten, Ausnahmen abzufangen und all dies auch asynchron zu starten inkl. Stornierung. Schön ist, dass das Auslesen auch während der Ausführung möglich ist.

public class ProcessSettings
{
    public string FileName { get; set; }
    public string Arguments { get; set; } = "";
    public string WorkingDirectory { get; set; } = "";
    public string InputText { get; set; } = null;
    public int Timeout_milliseconds { get; set; } = -1;
    public bool ReadOutput { get; set; }
    public bool ShowWindow { get; set; }
    public bool KeepWindowOpen { get; set; }
    public bool StartAsAdministrator { get; set; }
    public string StartAsUsername { get; set; }
    public string StartAsUsername_Password { get; set; }
    public string StartAsUsername_Domain { get; set; }
    public bool DontReadExitCode { get; set; }
    public CancellationToken CancellationToken { get; set; }
}

public class ProcessOutputReader   // Optional, to get the output while executing instead only as result at the end
{
    public event TextEventHandler OutputChanged;
    public event TextEventHandler OutputErrorChanged;
    public void UpdateOutput(string text)
    {
        OutputChanged?.Invoke(this, new TextEventArgs(text));
    }
    public void UpdateOutputError(string text)
    {
        OutputErrorChanged?.Invoke(this, new TextEventArgs(text));
    }
    public delegate void TextEventHandler(object sender, TextEventArgs e);
    public class TextEventArgs : EventArgs
    {
        public string Text { get; }
        public TextEventArgs(string text) { Text = text; }
    }
}

public class ProcessResult
{
    public string Output { get; set; }
    public string OutputError { get; set; }
    public int ExitCode { get; set; }
    public bool WasCancelled { get; set; }
    public bool WasSuccessful { get; set; }
}

public class ProcessStarter
{
    public ProcessResult Execute(ProcessSettings settings, ProcessOutputReader outputReader = null)
    {
        return Task.Run(() => ExecuteAsync(settings, outputReader)).GetAwaiter().GetResult();
    }

    public async Task<ProcessResult> ExecuteAsync(ProcessSettings settings, ProcessOutputReader outputReader = null)
    {
        if (settings.FileName == null) throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(ProcessSettings.FileName));
        if (settings.Arguments == null) throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(ProcessSettings.Arguments));

        var cmdSwitches = "/Q " + (settings.KeepWindowOpen ? "/K" : "/C");

        var arguments = $"{cmdSwitches} {settings.FileName} {settings.Arguments}";
        var startInfo = new ProcessStartInfo("cmd", arguments)
        {
            UseShellExecute = false,
            RedirectStandardOutput = settings.ReadOutput,
            RedirectStandardError = settings.ReadOutput,
            RedirectStandardInput = settings.InputText != null,
            CreateNoWindow = !(settings.ShowWindow || settings.KeepWindowOpen),
        };
        if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(settings.StartAsUsername))
        {
            if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(settings.StartAsUsername_Password))
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(ProcessSettings.StartAsUsername_Password));
            if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(settings.StartAsUsername_Domain))
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(ProcessSettings.StartAsUsername_Domain));
            if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(settings.WorkingDirectory))
                settings.WorkingDirectory = Path.GetPathRoot(Path.GetTempPath());

            startInfo.UserName = settings.StartAsUsername;
            startInfo.PasswordInClearText = settings.StartAsUsername_Password;
            startInfo.Domain = settings.StartAsUsername_Domain;
        }
        var output = new StringBuilder();
        var error = new StringBuilder();
        if (!settings.ReadOutput)
        {
            output.AppendLine($"Enable {nameof(ProcessSettings.ReadOutput)} to get Output");
        }
        if (settings.StartAsAdministrator)
        {
            startInfo.Verb = "runas";
            startInfo.UseShellExecute = true;  // Verb="runas" only possible with ShellExecute=true.
            startInfo.RedirectStandardOutput = startInfo.RedirectStandardError = startInfo.RedirectStandardInput = false;
            output.AppendLine("Output couldn't be read when started as Administrator");
        }
        if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(settings.WorkingDirectory))
        {
            startInfo.WorkingDirectory = settings.WorkingDirectory;
        }
        var result = new ProcessResult();
        var taskCompletionSourceProcess = new TaskCompletionSource<bool>();

        var process = new Process { StartInfo = startInfo, EnableRaisingEvents = true };
        try
        {
            process.OutputDataReceived += (sender, e) =>
            {
                if (e?.Data != null)
                {
                    output.AppendLine(e.Data);
                    outputReader?.UpdateOutput(e.Data);
                }
            };
            process.ErrorDataReceived += (sender, e) =>
            {
                if (e?.Data != null)
                {
                    error.AppendLine(e.Data);
                    outputReader?.UpdateOutputError(e.Data);
                }
            };
            process.Exited += (sender, e) =>
            {
                try { (sender as Process)?.WaitForExit(); } catch (InvalidOperationException) { }
                taskCompletionSourceProcess.TrySetResult(false);
            };

            try
            {
                process.Start();
            }
            catch (System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception ex)
            {
                if (ex.NativeErrorCode == 1223)
                {
                    error.AppendLine("AdminRights request Cancelled by User!! " + ex);
                    taskCompletionSourceProcess.SetException(ex);
                }
                else
                {
                    error.AppendLine("Win32Exception thrown: " + ex);
                    taskCompletionSourceProcess.SetException(ex);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                error.AppendLine("Exception thrown: " + ex);
                taskCompletionSourceProcess.SetException(ex);
            }
            if (success && startInfo.RedirectStandardOutput)
                process.BeginOutputReadLine();
            if (success && startInfo.RedirectStandardError)
                process.BeginErrorReadLine();
            if (success && startInfo.RedirectStandardInput)
            {
                var writeInputTask = Task.Factory.StartNew(() => WriteInputTask());
            }

            async void WriteInputTask()
            {
                var processRunning = true;
                await Task.Delay(50).ConfigureAwait(false);
                try { processRunning = !process.HasExited; } catch { }
                while (processRunning)
                {
                    if (settings.InputText != null)
                    {
                        try
                        {
                            await process.StandardInput.WriteLineAsync(settings.InputText).ConfigureAwait(false);
                            await process.StandardInput.FlushAsync().ConfigureAwait(false);
                            settings.InputText = null;
                        }
                        catch { }
                    }
                    await Task.Delay(5).ConfigureAwait(false);
                    try { processRunning = !process.HasExited; } catch { processRunning = false; }
                }
            }

            if (success && settings.CancellationToken != default(CancellationToken))
                settings.CancellationToken.Register(() => taskCompletionSourceProcess.TrySetResult(true));
            if (success && settings.Timeout_milliseconds > 0)
                new CancellationTokenSource(settings.Timeout_milliseconds).Token.Register(() => taskCompletionSourceProcess.TrySetResult(true));

            var taskProcess = taskCompletionSourceProcess.Task;
            await taskProcess.ConfigureAwait(false);
            if (taskProcess.Result == true) // process was cancelled by token or timeout
            {
                if (!process.HasExited)
                {
                    result.WasCancelled = true;
                    error.AppendLine("Process was cancelled!");
                    try
                    {
                        process.CloseMainWindow();
                        await Task.Delay(30).ConfigureAwait(false);
                        if (!process.HasExited)
                        {
                            process.Kill();
                        }
                    }
                    catch { }
                }
            }
            result.ExitCode = settings.DontReadExitCode ? -1 : process.ExitCode;     // Reason: sometimes, like when timeout /t 30 is started, reading the ExitCode is only possible if the timeout expired, even if process.Kill was called before.
            process.Close();
        }
        finally { var disposeTask = Task.Factory.StartNew(() => process.Dispose()); }    // start in new Task because disposing sometimes waits until the process is finished, for example while executing following command: ping -n 30 -w 1000 127.0.0.1 > nul
        if (result.ExitCode == -1073741510 && !result.WasCancelled)
        {
            error.AppendLine($"Process exited by user!");
        }
        result.WasSuccessful = !result.WasCancelled && result.ExitCode == 0;
        result.Output = output.ToString();
        result.OutputError = error.ToString();
        return result;
    }
}
0
Apfelkuacha

Ich bin wirklich besorgt über die Entsorgung des Prozesses. Was ist mit dem Warten auf den asynchronen Ausgang?

public static class ProcessExtensions
{
    public static Task WaitForExitAsync(this Process process)
    {
        var tcs = new TaskCompletionSource<object>();
        process.EnableRaisingEvents = true;
        process.Exited += (s, e) => tcs.TrySetResult(null);
        return process.HasExited ? Task.CompletedTask : tcs.Task;
    }        
}

Dann benutze es so:

public static async Task<int> ExecAsync(string command, string args)
{
    ProcessStartInfo psi = new ProcessStartInfo();
    psi.FileName = command;
    psi.Arguments = args;

    using (Process proc = Process.Start(psi))
    {
        await proc.WaitForExitAsync();
        return proc.ExitCode;
    }
}
0
Johann Medina