web-dev-qa-db-de.com

Was ist das Äquivalent von 'beschreiben' in SQL Server?

Ich habe eine SQL Server-Datenbank und möchte wissen, welche Spalten und Typen es hat. Ich würde es vorziehen, dies über eine Abfrage zu tun, anstatt eine GUI wie Enterprise Manager zu verwenden. Gibt es eine Möglichkeit, dies zu tun?

259
dbg

Sie können die Prozedur sp_columns gespeichert verwenden:

exec sp_columns MyTable
277

Es gibt einige Methoden, um Metadaten zu einer Tabelle abzurufen:

EXEC sp_help tablename

Gibt mehrere Ergebnismengen zurück, die die Tabelle, ihre Spalten und Einschränkungen beschreiben.

Die INFORMATION_SCHEMA-Ansichten geben Ihnen die gewünschten Informationen. Leider müssen Sie die Ansichten abfragen und manuell verknüpfen.

92
Brannon

Für den Fall, dass Sie keine gespeicherte Prozedur verwenden möchten, haben wir eine einfache Abfrageversion 

select * 
  from information_schema.columns 
 where table_name = 'aspnet_Membership'
 order by ordinal_position
44
Salamander2007

Verwenden Sie diese Abfrage

Select * From INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS Where TABLE_NAME = 'TABLENAME'
28
sukhi

Sie können folgendes verwenden

sp_help tablename

Beispiel: Sp_help Kunde

ODER Verknüpfung verwenden 

  • wählen Sie die Tabelle aus, drücken Sie Alt + F1

Beispiel: Kunde Drücken Sie Alt + F1 

26

Einfach Tisch auswählen und drücken Alt+F1,

es werden alle Informationen zu Tabellen wie Spaltenname, Datentyp, Schlüssel usw. angezeigt.

15
Shwetank Suthar

Bitte verwenden Sie die folgende SQL-Abfrage. das hat für meinen Fall funktioniert.

select * FROM   INFORMATION_SCHEMA.Columns where table_name = 'tablename';
12
Abhijeet

Zusätzlich zu den in anderen Antworten dargestellten Möglichkeiten können Sie verwenden 

SELECT TOP 0 * FROM table_name

Dadurch erhalten Sie den Namen jeder Spalte ohne Ergebnis und werden fast sofort mit minimalem Aufwand abgeschlossen.

11
kingfrito_5005

Ich habe ein sql * plus DESC (RIBE) wie select geschrieben (zeigt auch die Spaltenkommentare an) in t-sql:

USE YourDB
GO

DECLARE @objectName NVARCHAR(128) = 'YourTable';

SELECT
  a.[NAME]
 ,a.[TYPE]
 ,a.[CHARSET]
 ,a.[COLLATION]
 ,a.[NULLABLE]
 ,a.[DEFAULT]
 ,b.[COMMENTS]
-- ,a.[ORDINAL_POSITION]
FROM
  (
    SELECT
      COLUMN_NAME                                     AS [NAME]
     ,CASE DATA_TYPE
        WHEN 'char'       THEN DATA_TYPE  + '(' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + ')'
        WHEN 'numeric'    THEN DATA_TYPE  + '(' + CAST(NUMERIC_PRECISION AS VARCHAR) + ', ' + CAST(NUMERIC_SCALE AS VARCHAR) + ')'
        WHEN 'nvarchar'   THEN DATA_TYPE  + '(' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + ')'
        WHEN 'varbinary'  THEN DATA_TYPE + '(' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + ')'
        WHEN 'varchar'    THEN DATA_TYPE   + '(' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + ')'
        ELSE DATA_TYPE
      END                                             AS [TYPE]
     ,CHARACTER_SET_NAME                              AS [CHARSET]
     ,COLLATION_NAME                                  AS [COLLATION]
     ,IS_NULLABLE                                     AS [NULLABLE]
     ,COLUMN_DEFAULT                                  AS [DEFAULT]
     ,ORDINAL_POSITION
    FROM   
      INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS
    WHERE
      TABLE_NAME = @objectName
  ) a
  FULL JOIN
  (
   SELECT
     CAST(value AS NVARCHAR)                        AS [COMMENTS]
    ,CAST(objname AS NVARCHAR)                      AS [NAME]
   FROM
     ::fn_listextendedproperty ('MS_Description', 'user', 'dbo', 'table', @objectName, 'column', default)
  ) b
  ON a.NAME COLLATE YourCollation = b.NAME COLLATE YourCollation
ORDER BY
  a.[ORDINAL_POSITION];

Die oben erwähnte Auswahl kann in einer mit System markierten gespeicherten Prozedur verwendet werden und kann auf einfache Weise aus einer beliebigen Datenbank Ihrer Instanz aufgerufen werden:

USE master;
GO

IF OBJECT_ID('sp_desc', 'P') IS NOT NULL
  DROP PROCEDURE sp_desc
GO

CREATE PROCEDURE sp_desc (
  @tableName  nvarchar(128)
) AS
BEGIN
  DECLARE @dbName       sysname;
  DECLARE @schemaName   sysname;
  DECLARE @objectName   sysname;
  DECLARE @objectID     int;
  DECLARE @tmpTableName varchar(100);
  DECLARE @sqlCmd       nvarchar(4000);

  SELECT @dbName = PARSENAME(@tableName, 3);
  IF @dbName IS NULL SELECT @dbName = DB_NAME();

  SELECT @schemaName = PARSENAME(@tableName, 2);
  IF @schemaName IS NULL SELECT @schemaName = SCHEMA_NAME();

  SELECT @objectName = PARSENAME(@tableName, 1);
  IF @objectName IS NULL
    BEGIN
      PRINT 'Object is missing from your function call!';
      RETURN;
    END;

  SELECT @objectID = OBJECT_ID(@dbName + '.' + @schemaName + '.' + @objectName);
  IF @objectID IS NULL
    BEGIN
      PRINT 'Object [' + @dbName + '].[' + @schemaName + '].[' + @objectName + '] does not exist!';
      RETURN;
    END;

  SELECT @tmpTableName = '#tmp_DESC_' + CAST(@@SPID AS VARCHAR) + REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(CAST(CONVERT(CHAR, GETDATE(), 121) AS VARCHAR), '-', ''), ' ', ''), ':', ''), '.', '');
  --PRINT @tmpTableName;
  SET @sqlCmd = '
    USE ' + @dbName + '
    CREATE TABLE ' + @tmpTableName + ' (
      [NAME]              nvarchar(128) NOT NULL
     ,[TYPE]              varchar(50)
     ,[CHARSET]           varchar(50)
     ,[COLLATION]         varchar(50)
     ,[NULLABLE]          varchar(3)
     ,[DEFAULT]           nvarchar(4000)
     ,[COMMENTS]          nvarchar(3750));

    INSERT INTO ' + @tmpTableName + '
    SELECT
      a.[NAME]
     ,a.[TYPE]
     ,a.[CHARSET]
     ,a.[COLLATION]
     ,a.[NULLABLE]
     ,a.[DEFAULT]
     ,b.[COMMENTS]
    FROM
      (
        SELECT
          COLUMN_NAME                                     AS [NAME]
         ,CASE DATA_TYPE
            WHEN ''char''      THEN DATA_TYPE + ''('' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + '')''
            WHEN ''numeric''   THEN DATA_TYPE + ''('' + CAST(NUMERIC_PRECISION AS VARCHAR) + '', '' + CAST(NUMERIC_SCALE AS VARCHAR) + '')''
            WHEN ''nvarchar''  THEN DATA_TYPE + ''('' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + '')''
            WHEN ''varbinary'' THEN DATA_TYPE + ''('' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + '')''
            WHEN ''varchar''   THEN DATA_TYPE + ''('' + CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS VARCHAR) + '')''
            ELSE DATA_TYPE
          END                                             AS [TYPE]
         ,CHARACTER_SET_NAME                              AS [CHARSET]
         ,COLLATION_NAME                                  AS [COLLATION]
         ,IS_NULLABLE                                     AS [NULLABLE]
         ,COLUMN_DEFAULT                                  AS [DEFAULT]
         ,ORDINAL_POSITION
        FROM   
          INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS
        WHERE   
          TABLE_NAME = ''' + @objectName + '''
      ) a
      FULL JOIN
      (
         SELECT
           CAST(value AS NVARCHAR)                        AS [COMMENTS]
          ,CAST(objname AS NVARCHAR)                      AS [NAME]
         FROM
           ::fn_listextendedproperty (''MS_Description'', ''user'', ''' + @schemaName + ''', ''table'', ''' + @objectName + ''', ''column'', default)
      ) b
      ON a.NAME COLLATE Hungarian_CI_AS = b.NAME COLLATE Hungarian_CI_AS
    ORDER BY
      a.[ORDINAL_POSITION];

    SELECT * FROM ' + @tmpTableName + ';'

    --PRINT @sqlCmd;

    EXEC sp_executesql @sqlCmd;
    RETURN;
END;
GO

EXEC sys.sp_MS_marksystemobject sp_desc
GO

So führen Sie den Prozedurtyp aus:

EXEC sp_desc 'YourDB.YourSchema.YourTable';

Wenn Sie eine Beschreibung eines Objekts der aktuellen Datenbank (und des Schemas) erhalten möchten, geben Sie einfach den folgenden Typ ein:

EXEC sp_desc 'YourTable';

Da sp_desc eine vom System markierte Prozedur ist, können Sie auch den exec-Befehl verlassen (sowieso nicht empfohlen):

sp_desc 'YourTable';
7
Zsolt Hidasi

Dies ist der Code, den ich im EntityFramework Reverse POCO Generator verwende (verfügbar hier )

Tabelle SQL:

SELECT  c.TABLE_SCHEMA AS SchemaName,
        c.TABLE_NAME AS TableName,
        t.TABLE_TYPE AS TableType,
        c.ORDINAL_POSITION AS Ordinal,
        c.COLUMN_NAME AS ColumnName,
        CAST(CASE WHEN IS_NULLABLE = 'YES' THEN 1
                  ELSE 0
             END AS BIT) AS IsNullable,
        DATA_TYPE AS TypeName,
        ISNULL(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH, 0) AS [MaxLength],
        CAST(ISNULL(NUMERIC_PRECISION, 0) AS INT) AS [Precision],
        ISNULL(COLUMN_DEFAULT, '') AS [Default],
        CAST(ISNULL(DATETIME_PRECISION, 0) AS INT) AS DateTimePrecision,
        ISNULL(NUMERIC_SCALE, 0) AS Scale,
        CAST(COLUMNPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(c.TABLE_SCHEMA) + '.' + QUOTENAME(c.TABLE_NAME)), c.COLUMN_NAME, 'IsIdentity') AS BIT) AS IsIdentity,
        CAST(CASE WHEN COLUMNPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(c.TABLE_SCHEMA) + '.' + QUOTENAME(c.TABLE_NAME)), c.COLUMN_NAME, 'IsIdentity') = 1 THEN 1
                  WHEN COLUMNPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(c.TABLE_SCHEMA) + '.' + QUOTENAME(c.TABLE_NAME)), c.COLUMN_NAME, 'IsComputed') = 1 THEN 1
                  WHEN DATA_TYPE = 'TIMESTAMP' THEN 1
                  ELSE 0
             END AS BIT) AS IsStoreGenerated,
        CAST(CASE WHEN pk.ORDINAL_POSITION IS NULL THEN 0
                  ELSE 1
             END AS BIT) AS PrimaryKey,
        ISNULL(pk.ORDINAL_POSITION, 0) PrimaryKeyOrdinal,
        CAST(CASE WHEN fk.COLUMN_NAME IS NULL THEN 0
                  ELSE 1
             END AS BIT) AS IsForeignKey
FROM    INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS c
        LEFT OUTER JOIN (SELECT u.TABLE_SCHEMA,
                                u.TABLE_NAME,
                                u.COLUMN_NAME,
                                u.ORDINAL_POSITION
                         FROM   INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE u
                                INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_CONSTRAINTS tc
                                    ON u.TABLE_SCHEMA = tc.CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA
                                       AND u.TABLE_NAME = tc.TABLE_NAME
                                       AND u.CONSTRAINT_NAME = tc.CONSTRAINT_NAME
                         WHERE  CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'PRIMARY KEY') pk
            ON c.TABLE_SCHEMA = pk.TABLE_SCHEMA
               AND c.TABLE_NAME = pk.TABLE_NAME
               AND c.COLUMN_NAME = pk.COLUMN_NAME
        LEFT OUTER JOIN (SELECT DISTINCT
                                u.TABLE_SCHEMA,
                                u.TABLE_NAME,
                                u.COLUMN_NAME
                         FROM   INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE u
                                INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_CONSTRAINTS tc
                                    ON u.TABLE_SCHEMA = tc.CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA
                                       AND u.TABLE_NAME = tc.TABLE_NAME
                                       AND u.CONSTRAINT_NAME = tc.CONSTRAINT_NAME
                         WHERE  CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'FOREIGN KEY') fk
            ON c.TABLE_SCHEMA = fk.TABLE_SCHEMA
               AND c.TABLE_NAME = fk.TABLE_NAME
               AND c.COLUMN_NAME = fk.COLUMN_NAME
        INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES t
            ON c.TABLE_SCHEMA = t.TABLE_SCHEMA
               AND c.TABLE_NAME = t.TABLE_NAME
WHERE c.TABLE_NAME NOT IN ('EdmMetadata', '__MigrationHistory')

Fremdschlüssel-SQL:

SELECT  FK.name AS FK_Table,
        FkCol.name AS FK_Column,
        PK.name AS PK_Table,
        PkCol.name AS PK_Column,
        OBJECT_NAME(f.object_id) AS Constraint_Name,
        SCHEMA_NAME(FK.schema_id) AS fkSchema,
        SCHEMA_NAME(PK.schema_id) AS pkSchema,
        PkCol.name AS primarykey,
        k.constraint_column_id AS ORDINAL_POSITION
FROM    sys.objects AS PK
        INNER JOIN sys.foreign_keys AS f
            INNER JOIN sys.foreign_key_columns AS k
                ON k.constraint_object_id = f.object_id
            INNER JOIN sys.indexes AS i
                ON f.referenced_object_id = i.object_id
                   AND f.key_index_id = i.index_id
            ON PK.object_id = f.referenced_object_id
        INNER JOIN sys.objects AS FK
            ON f.parent_object_id = FK.object_id
        INNER JOIN sys.columns AS PkCol
            ON f.referenced_object_id = PkCol.object_id
               AND k.referenced_column_id = PkCol.column_id
        INNER JOIN sys.columns AS FkCol
            ON f.parent_object_id = FkCol.object_id
               AND k.parent_column_id = FkCol.column_id
ORDER BY FK_Table, FK_Column

Erweiterte Eigenschaften:

SELECT  s.name AS [schema],
        t.name AS [table],
        c.name AS [column],
        value AS [property]
FROM    sys.extended_properties AS ep
        INNER JOIN sys.tables AS t
            ON ep.major_id = t.object_id
        INNER JOIN sys.schemas AS s
            ON s.schema_id = t.schema_id
        INNER JOIN sys.columns AS c
            ON ep.major_id = c.object_id
               AND ep.minor_id = c.column_id
WHERE   class = 1
ORDER BY t.name
2
Simon Hughes

Sie können die sp_help 'TableName' verwenden.

2
user3819354

Das Problem bei diesen Antworten ist, dass Sie die Schlüsseldaten verpassen. Dies ist zwar ein bisschen chaotisch, dies ist jedoch eine schnelle Version, die ich mir vorgestellt habe, um sicherzustellen, dass sie die gleichen Informationen enthält, die MySQL Describe anzeigt.

Select SC.name AS 'Field', ISC.DATA_TYPE AS 'Type', ISC.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS 'Length', SC.IS_NULLABLE AS 'Null', I.is_primary_key AS 'Key', SC.is_identity AS 'Identity'
From sys.columns AS SC 
LEFT JOIN sys.index_columns AS IC
ON IC.object_id = OBJECT_ID('dbo.Expenses') AND 
IC.column_id = SC.column_id
LEFT JOIN sys.indexes AS I 
ON I.object_id = OBJECT_ID('dbo.Expenses') AND 
IC.index_id = I.index_id
LEFT JOIN information_schema.columns ISC
ON ISC.TABLE_NAME = 'Expenses'
AND ISC.COLUMN_NAME = SC.name
WHERE SC.object_id = OBJECT_ID('dbo.Expenses')
1
user2008097

Der SQL Server, der dem describe-Befehl von Oracle entspricht, ist der gespeicherte proc sp_help

Mit dem Befehl describe erhalten Sie Informationen zu Spaltennamen, -typen, -längen usw.

Angenommen, Sie möchten in SQL Server eine Tabelle 'mytable' im Schema 'myschema' in der Datenbank 'mydb' beschreiben. Sie haben folgende Möglichkeiten:

USE mydb;
exec sp_help 'myschema.mytable';
1
VHS
CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[describe] 
( 
@SearchStr nvarchar(max) 
) 
AS 
BEGIN 
SELECT  
    CONCAT([COLUMN_NAME],' ',[DATA_TYPE],' ',[CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH],' ', 
    (SELECT CASE [IS_NULLABLE] WHEN 'NO' THEN 'NOT NULL' ELSE 'NULL' END),
    (SELECT CASE WHEN [COLUMN_DEFAULT] IS NULL THEN '' ELSE CONCAT(' DEFAULT ',[COLUMN_DEFAULT]) END)
    ) AS DESCRIPTION
    FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_NAME LIKE @SearchStr
END 
0

benutzen 

SELECT COL_LENGTH('tablename', 'colname')

Keine andere Lösung funktionierte für mich.

0
Pravin

Ich mag dieses Format:

name     DataType      Collation             Constraints         PK  FK          Comment

id       int                                 NOT NULL IDENTITY   PK              Order Line Id
pid      int                                 NOT NULL                tbl_orders  Order Id
itemCode varchar(10)   Latin1_General_CI_AS  NOT NULL                            Product Code

Also habe ich das benutzt:

DECLARE @tname varchar(100) = 'yourTableName';

SELECT  col.name,

        CASE typ.name
            WHEN 'nvarchar' THEN 'nvarchar('+CAST((col.max_length / 2) as varchar)+')'
            WHEN 'varchar' THEN 'varchar('+CAST(col.max_length as varchar)+')'
            WHEN 'char' THEN 'char('+CAST(col.max_length as varchar)+')'
            WHEN 'nchar' THEN 'nchar('+CAST((col.max_length / 2) as varchar)+')'
            WHEN 'binary' THEN 'binary('+CAST(col.max_length as varchar)+')'
            WHEN 'varbinary' THEN 'varbinary('+CAST(col.max_length as varchar)+')'
            WHEN 'numeric' THEN 'numeric('+CAST(col.precision as varchar)+(CASE WHEN col.scale = 0 THEN '' ELSE ','+CAST(col.scale as varchar) END) +')'
            WHEN 'decimal' THEN 'decimal('+CAST(col.precision as varchar)+(CASE WHEN col.scale = 0 THEN '' ELSE ','+CAST(col.scale as varchar) END) +')'
            ELSE typ.name
            END DataType,

        ISNULL(col.collation_name,'') Collation,

        CASE WHEN col.is_nullable = 0 THEN 'NOT NULL ' ELSE '' END + CASE WHEN col.is_identity = 1 THEN 'IDENTITY' ELSE '' END Constraints,

        ISNULL((SELECT 'PK'
                FROM    sys.key_constraints kc INNER JOIN
                        sys.tables tb ON tb.object_id = kc.parent_object_id INNER JOIN
                        sys.indexes si ON si.name = kc.name INNER JOIN
                        sys.index_columns sic ON sic.index_id = si.index_id AND sic.object_id = si.object_id
                WHERE kc.type = 'PK'
                  AND tb.name = @tname
                  AND sic.column_id = col.column_id),'') PK,

        ISNULL((SELECT (SELECT name FROM sys.tables st WHERE st.object_id = fkc.referenced_object_id)
                FROM    sys.foreign_key_columns fkc INNER JOIN
                        sys.columns c ON c.column_id = fkc.parent_column_id AND fkc.parent_object_id = c.object_id INNER JOIN
                        sys.tables t ON t.object_id = c.object_id
                WHERE t.name = tab.name
                  AND c.name = col.name),'') FK,

        ISNULL((SELECT value
                FROM sys.extended_properties
                WHERE major_id = tab.object_id
                  AND minor_id = col.column_id),'') Comment

FROM sys.columns col INNER JOIN
     sys.tables tab ON tab.object_id = col.object_id INNER JOIN
     sys.types typ ON typ.system_type_id = col.system_type_id
WHERE tab.name = @tname
  AND typ.name != 'sysname'
ORDER BY col.column_id;
0
Graham